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A boat or ship engaged in the tramp trade is one which does not have a fixed schedule or published ports of call. As opposed to freight liners, tramp ships trade . Definition of Tramp vessel: A vessel which does not operate under any regular schedule from one port to another, but calls any port where cargo may be.
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Width m. Height m. Tramp shipping plays an important role in the foreign trade of the capitalist countries. Today, the tramp trade includes all types of vessels, from bulk carriers to tankers. Each can be used for a specific market, or ships can be combined like the oil, bulk, ore carriers to accommodate many different markets depending where the ship is located and the supply and demand of the area.
Tramp ships often carry with them their own gear booms, cranes, derricks in case the next port lacks the proper equipment for loading or discharging cargo.
Liner Service vs Tramp Service - Liner service is a service that operates within a schedule and has a fixed port rotation with published dates of calls at the advertised ports.. A liner service generally fulfills the schedule unless in cases where a call at one of the ports has been unduly delayed due to natural or man-mad causes while a Tramp Service or tramper on the other hand is a ship that has no fixed routing or itinerary or schedule and is available at short notice or fixture to load any cargo from any port to any port. Shipping industry can be divided into three broad segments, each of which handles a specific set of cargoes.
Bulk shipping; handles large cargo parcels in "bulk carriers" and oil tankers designed for the efficient transport of the very large parcels 10 to , tonnes of homogeneous cargoes such as iron ore, coal, grain, oil etc. Specialized shipping transports large quantities of "specialized" trades e. Although these ships are purpose built, they are often designed to allow the carriage of other cargoes.
Specialized cargoes are often subject to competition from both the liner and bulk shipping segments.
Liner shipping; specializes in the transport of small cargo parcels, which do not fill the hold of a ship, on regular services. Today most liner cargo is carried in containerships, but some are still transported in multi-purpose vessels or ro-ros. Tramp charters The tramp ship is a contract carrier. Unlike a liner, often called a common carrier, which has a fixed schedule and a published tariff, the ideal tramp can carry anything anywhere, and freight rates are influenced by supply and demand.
To generate business, a contract to lease the vessel known as a charter party is drawn up between the ship owner and the charterer. There are three types of charters, voyage, time and demise. Voyage charter The voyage charter is the most common charter in tramp shipping, according to Schiels. The owner of the tramp is obligated to provide a seaworthy ship while the charterer is obligated to provide a full load of cargo. This type of charter is the most lucrative, but can be the riskiest due to lack of new charterers.
During a voyage charter a part or all of a vessel is leased to the charterer for a voyage to a port or a set of different ports. Under the net form, the cargo a tramp ship carries is loaded, discharged, and trimmed at the charterer's expense.
Under the gross form the expense of cargo loading, discharging and trimming is on the owner. The charterer is only responsible to provide the cargo at a specified port and to accept it at the destination port. Time becomes an issue in the voyage charter if the tramp ship is late in her schedule or loading or discharging are delayed. If a tramp ship is delayed the charterer pays demurrage, which is a penalty, to the ship owner. The number of days a tramp ship is chartered for is called lay days.
Time charter In a time charter the owner provides a vessel that is fully manned and equipped. The owner provides the crew, but the crew takes orders from the charterer. The owner is also responsible for insuring the vessel, repairs the vessel may need, engine parts, and food for ships personnel.
The charterer is responsible for everything else. The main advantage of the time charter is that it diverts the costs of running a ship to the charterer. Demise charter The demise charter is the least used in the tramp trade because it heavily favors the owner. The ship owner only provides a ship devoid of any crew, stores, or fuel.
It is the Charterer's responsibility to provide everything the ship will need. The ship owner must provide a seaworthy vessel, but once the charterer accepts the vessel, the responsibility of seaworthiness is the charterer's. The charterer crews the vessel, but the owner can make recommendations. There are no standardized forms in a demise charter, contracts can vary greatly, and are written up to meet the needs of the charterer.
Brokerage Tramp ship owners and tramp ship charterers rely on brokers to find cargoes for their ships to carry. A broker understands international trade conditions, the movements of goods, market prices, and the availability of the owner's ships. The Baltic Exchange, in London, is the physical headquarters for tramp ship brokerage.
The Baltic Exchange works like an organized market, and provides a meeting place for ship owners, brokers, and charterers. It also provides easy access to information on market fluctuations, and commodity prices to all the parties involved. Brokers can use it to quickly match a cargo to a ship or ship to a cargo depending on whom they are working for. A committee of owners, brokers, and charterers are elected to manage the exchange to ensure everyone's interests are represented.
With the speed of today's communications the floor of the Baltic Exchange is not nearly as populated as it once was, but the information and networking the exchange provides is still an asset to the tramp trade. Tramp shipping has relatively few barriers to entry. New investors require equity, but commercial shipping banks will provide loans to acceptable credits against a first mortgage on the ship. There is a comprehensive network of support services to which new investors can subcontract most business functions subject to sound management controls.
Ship management companies will manage the ships for a fee; chartering brokers arrange employment, collecting the revenues and dealing with claims; sale and purchase brokers will buy and sell ships; maritime lawyers and accountants undertake legal and administrative functions; classification societies and technical consultants provide technical support. Fundamentally, the organization of a tramping company will be simpler than the organization of a liner company.