Influenced by the 18th-century European Enlightenment and its own native American Philosophy , the American Enlightenment applied scientific reasoning to politics, science and religion, promoted religious tolerance, and restored literature, the arts, and music as important disciplines and professions worthy of study in colleges. A prominent example of a monarch who took the Enlightenment project seriously was Joseph II of Austria , who ruled from to and implemented a wide array of radical reforms, such as the complete abolition of serfdom , the imposition of equal taxation policies between the aristocracy and the peasantry , the institution of religious toleration , including equal civil rights for Jews and the suppression of Catholic religious authority throughout his empire, creating a more secular nation.
In the early 18th century, the Commonwealth men and the Country Party in England, promoted republicanism and condemned the perceived widespread corruption and lack of morality during the Walpole era , theorizing that only civic virtue could protect a country from despotism and ruin. A series of essays, known as Cato's Letters , published in the London Journal during the s and written by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon , condemned tyranny and advanced principles of freedom of conscience and freedom of speech.
They were an important influence on the development of Republicanism in the United States. In the s, the " Middlesex radicals", led by the politician John Wilkes who was expelled from the House of Commons for seditious libel , founded the Society for the Defence of the Bill of Rights and developed the belief that every man had the right to vote and "natural reason" enabled him to properly judge political issues. Liberty consisted in frequent elections.
This was to begin a long tradition of British radicalism. In contrast to England, the French experience in the 18th century was characterized by the perpetuation of feudalism and absolutism. Montesquieu wrote a series of highly influential works in the early 18th century, including Persian letters and The Spirit of the Laws The latter exerted tremendous influence, both inside and outside France.
Montesquieu pleaded in favor of a constitutional system of government , the preservation of civil liberties and the law and the idea that political institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical aspects of each community. In particular, he argued that political liberty required the separation of the powers of government. Building on John Locke 's Second Treatise of Government , he advocated that the executive, legislative and judicial functions of government should be assigned to different bodies, so that attempts by one branch of government to infringe on political liberty might be restrained by the other branches.
In a lengthy discussion of the English political system, which he greatly admired, he tried to show how this might be achieved and liberty secured, even in a monarchy. He also notes that liberty cannot be secure where there is no separation of powers, even in a republic. He also emphasized the importance of a robust due process in law, including the right to a fair trial , the presumption of innocence and proportionality in the severity of punishment. Another important figure of the French Enlightenment was Voltaire. Initially believing in the constructive role an enlightened monarch could play in improving the welfare of the people, he eventually came to a new conclusion: "It is up to us to cultivate our garden".
His most polemical and ferocious attacks on intolerance and religious persecutions indeed began to appear a few years later. Political tension between England and its American colonies grew after and the Seven Years' War over the issue of taxation without representation , culminating in the Declaration of Independence of a new republic, and the resulting American Revolutionary War to defend it.
The intellectual underpinnings for independence were provided by the English pamphleteer Thomas Paine. His Common Sense pro-independence pamphlet was anonymously published on January 10, and became an immediate success. The Articles of Confederation , written in , now appeared inadequate to provide security, or even a functional government. The Confederation Congress called a Constitutional Convention in , which resulted in the writing of a new Constitution of the United States establishing a federal government.
In the context of the times, the Constitution was a republican and liberal document. The American theorists and politicians strongly believe in the sovereignty of the people rather than in the sovereignty of the King. As one historian writes: "The American adoption of a democratic theory that all governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, as it had been put as early as the Declaration of Independence, was epoch-marking".
Historians widely regard the French Revolution as one of the most important events in history. Three years into the French Revolution, German writer Johann von Goethe reportedly told the defeated Prussian soldiers after the Battle of Valmy that "from this place and from this time forth commences a new era in world history, and you can all say that you were present at its birth". Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring option". The two key events that marked the triumph of liberalism were the Abolition of feudalism in France on the night of 4 August , which marked the collapse of feudal and old traditional rights and privileges and restrictions, and the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August.
Jefferson, the American ambassador to France, was consulted in its drafting and there are striking similarities with the American Declaration of Independence. The next few years were dominated by tensions between various liberal assemblies and a conservative monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. However, conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins , culminated in the Reign of Terror , that was marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution", with the death toll reaching into the tens of thousands.
The rise of Napoleon as dictator in , heralded a reverse of many of the republican and democratic gains. However Napoleon did not restore the ancien regime. He kept much of the liberalism and imposed a liberal code of law, the Code Napoleon. During the Napoleonic Wars , the French brought to Western Europe the liquidation of the feudal system , the liberalization of property laws , the end of seigneurial dues , the abolition of guilds , the legalization of divorce , the disintegration of Jewish ghettos , the collapse of the Inquisition , the final end of the Holy Roman Empire , the elimination of church courts and religious authority, the establishment of the metric system , and equality under the law for all men.
Outside France the Revolution had a major impact and its ideas became widespread. Furthermore, the French armies in the s and s directly overthrew feudal remains in much of western Europe. They liberalised property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised divorce , and closed the Jewish ghettos.
The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced, and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. Likewise in Switzerland the long-term impact of the French Revolution has been assessed by Martin:. His most lasting achievement, the Civil Code , served as "an object of emulation all over the globe,"  but it also perpetuated further discrimination against women under the banner of the "natural order". For France, however, the defeat of Napoleon brought about the restoration of the monarchy and an ultra-conservative order was reimposed on the country.
The development into maturity of classical liberalism took place before and after the French Revolution in Britain and was based on the following core concepts, namely classical economics , free trade , laissez-faire government with minimal intervention and taxation and a balanced budget. Classical liberals were committed to individualism, liberty and equal rights.
Writers such as John Bright and Richard Cobden opposed both aristocratic privilege and property, seeing them as an impediment to the development of a class of yeoman farmers. The radical liberal movement began in the s in England and concentrated on parliamentary and electoral reform, emphasizing natural rights and popular sovereignty.
Radicals like Richard Price and Joseph Priestley saw parliamentary reform as a first step toward dealing with their many grievances, including the treatment of Protestant Dissenters , the slave trade, high prices and high taxes. The ensuing Revolution Controversy featured, among others, Mary Wollstonecraft , who followed with an early feminist tract A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
Radicals encouraged mass support for democratic reform along with rejection of the monarchy , aristocracy and all forms of privilege. Different strands of the movement developed, with middle-class reformers aiming to widen the franchise to represent commercial and industrial interests and towns without parliamentary representation while Popular Radicals drawn from the middle class and from artisans agitated to assert wider rights including relieving distress. The theoretical basis for electoral reform was provided by Philosophical Radicals who followed the utilitarian philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and strongly supported parliamentary reform, but were generally hostile to the arguments and tactics of the Popular Radicals.
Improved economic conditions after , improvements in economic and criminal law and the abandoning of policies of repression led to decreasing polarisation and a more consensual form of reform politics that was to dominate in Britain for the next two centuries. In , Jeremy Bentham co-founded the Westminster Review with James Mill as a journal for Philosophical Radicals, setting out the utilitarian philosophy. The Reform Act was put through with the support of public outcry, mass meetings of political unions and riots in some cities.
This now enfranchised the middle classes, but it failed to meet radical demands.
Following the Reform Act, the mainly aristocratic Whigs in the House of Commons were joined by a small number of parliamentary Radicals as well as an increased number of middle-class Whigs. By , they were informally being called the Liberal Party. The Liberals produced one of the greatest British Prime Ministers— William Ewart Gladstone , also known as the Grand Old Man, who was the towering political figure of liberalism in the 19th century. Commitment to laissez-faire was not uniform. Some economists advocated state support of public works and education.
Classical liberals were also divided on free trade. David Ricardo expressed doubt that the removal of grain tariffs would have any general benefits. Most classical liberals also supported legislation to regulate the number of hours that children were allowed to work and usually did not oppose factory reform legislation. The Economist criticised Ricardo for his lack of support for free trade and expressed hostility to welfare, believing that the lower orders were responsible for their economic circumstances.
The Economist took the position that regulation of factory hours was harmful to workers and also strongly opposed state support for education, health, the provision of water and granting of patents and copyrights. The primary intellectual influences on 19th century liberal trends were those of Adam Smith and the classical economists as well as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
Smith's The Wealth of Nations , published in , was to provide most of the ideas of economics, at least until the publication of Mill's Principles in In addition to Adam Smith's legacy, Say's law , Malthus theories of population and Ricardo's iron law of wages became central doctrines of classical economics. However, neither of those observations became accepted by British economists at the time.
Thomas Malthus wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population in ,  becoming a major influence on classical liberalism. Utilitarianism provided the political justification for the implementation of economic liberalism by British governments which was to dominate economic policy from the s. Although utilitarianism prompted legislative and administrative reform and Mill's later writings on the subject foreshadowed the welfare state , it was mainly used as a justification for laissez-faire.
While this could be interpreted as a justification for state action to reduce poverty, it was used by classical liberals to justify inaction with the argument that the net benefit to all individuals would be higher. By the end of the 19th century, the principles of classical liberalism were being increasingly challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing perception of the evils of poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation present within modern industrial cities and the agitation of organized labour.
The ideal of the self-made individual, who through hard work and talent could make his or her place in the world, seemed increasingly implausible. A major political reaction against the changes introduced by industrialisation and laissez-faire capitalism came from conservatives concerned about social balance, although socialism later became a more important force for change and reform. Some Victorian writers—including Charles Dickens , Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold —became early influential critics of social injustice. John Stuart Mill contributed enormously to liberal thought by combining elements of classical liberalism with what eventually became known as the New Liberalism.
Enlarge cover. In , the Commons refused to renew the legislation,  leading to a continuous period of unprecedented freedom of the press apart from seditious libel. In contrast to England, the French experience in the 18th century was characterized by the perpetuation of feudalism and absolutism. For Habermas, the public sphere included print media and voluntary associations, and the contributors stress the extent of female engagement in political culture broadly conceived. After the war, there was a falling out between Russia and the West, and the Cold War opened in between the Communist Eastern Bloc and the liberal Western Alliance. In the s, the " Middlesex radicals", led by the politician John Wilkes who was expelled from the House of Commons for seditious libel , founded the Society for the Defence of the Bill of Rights and developed the belief that every man had the right to vote and "natural reason" enabled him to properly judge political issues. Ask a librarian.
Mill's On Liberty addressed the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. Mill defined social liberty as protection from "the tyranny of political rulers". He introduced a number of different concepts of the form tyranny can take, referred to as social tyranny and tyranny of the majority , respectively. Social liberty meant limits on the ruler's power through obtaining recognition of political liberties or rights and by the establishment of a system of constitutional checks.
Green's definition of liberty , influenced by Joseph Priestley and Josiah Warren , was that the individual ought to be free to do as he wishes unless he harms others. In his article " The Subjection of Women " , published , Mill attempted to prove that the legal subjugation of women is wrong and that it should give way to perfect equality. Although Mill's initial economic philosophy supported free markets and argued that progressive taxation penalised those who worked harder,  he later altered his views toward a more socialist bent , adding chapters to his Principles of Political Economy in defence of a socialist outlook and defending some socialist causes,  including the radical proposal that the whole wage system be abolished in favour of a co-operative wage system.
On one hand, there were progressive elites who sought to fuse the methods of science with liberal political economy. Fr example, the anthropologist and MP Sir John Lubbock followed the strategy of using cognitive science to challenge and shape public policy. Lubbock famously applied this approach to parliamentary debates relating to universal education, the preservation of monuments and the introduction of Bank Holidays.
At Balliol College, Oxford, Thomas Hill Green argued that the state should foster and protect the social, political and economic environments in which individuals will have the best chance of acting according to their consciences. The state should intervene only where there is a clear, proven and strong tendency of a liberty to enslave the individual. Green regarded the national state as legitimate only to the extent that it upholds a system of rights and obligations that is most likely to foster individual self-realisation. The Programme had a strong appeal to the nonconformist middle-class Liberal element which felt liberated by the departure of the aristocratic leaders of the Liberal Party.
Abolitionist and suffrage movements spread, along with representative and democratic ideals. France established an enduring republic in the s. Meanwhile, nationalism also spread rapidly after A mixture of liberal and nationalist sentiment in Italy and Germany brought about the unification of the two countries in the late 19th century. A liberal regime came to power in Italy, and ended the secular power of the popes. The Vatican, however, launched a counter crusade against liberalism. In many countries, liberal forces responded by expelling the Jesuit order.
Liberalism gained momentum in the beginning of the 20th century. The bastion of autocracy , the Russian Tsar , was overthrown in the first phase of the Russian Revolution. The Allied victory in World War I and the collapse of four empires seemed to mark the triumph of liberalism across the European continent, not just among the victorious allies , but also in Germany and the newly created states of Eastern Europe.
Militarism, as typified by Germany, was defeated and discredited. As Blinkhorn argues, the liberal themes were ascendant in terms of "cultural pluralism, religious and ethnic toleration, national self-determination, free-market economics, representative and responsible government, free trade, unionism, and the peaceful settlement of international disputes through a new body, the League of Nations ". The worldwide Great Depression , starting in , hastened the discrediting of liberal economics and strengthened calls for state control over economic affairs. Economic woes prompted widespread unrest in the European political world, leading to the strengthening of fascism and communism.
Their rise in culminated in World War II. After the war, there was a falling out between Russia and the West, and the Cold War opened in between the Communist Eastern Bloc and the liberal Western Alliance. Meanwhile, the definitive liberal response to the Great Depression was given by the British economist John Maynard Keynes , who had begun a theoretical work examining the relationship between unemployment, money and prices back in the s.
He believed that budget deficits were a good thing, a product of recessions. He wrote, "For Government borrowing of one kind or another is nature's remedy, so to speak, for preventing business losses from being, in so severe a slump as to present one, so great as to bring production altogether to a standstill. At the height of the Great Depression in , Keynes published The Means to Prosperity , which contained specific policy recommendations for tackling unemployment in a global recession, chiefly counter cyclical public spending. The Means to Prosperity contains one of the first mentions of the multiplier effect.
The Cold War featured extensive ideological competition and several proxy wars , but the widely feared Third World War between the Soviet Union and the United States never occurred. While communist states and liberal democracies competed against one another, an economic crisis in the s inspired a move away from Keynesian economics , especially under Margaret Thatcher in the UK and Ronald Reagan in the US.
This classical liberal renewal, called pejoratively " neoliberalism " by its opponents, lasted through the s and the s. Meanwhile, nearing the end of the 20th century, communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed precipitously , leaving liberal democracies as the only major forms of government in the West. This classical liberal renewal, sometimes called libertarianism ,  lasted through the s and the s, although recent economic troubles have prompted a resurgence in Keynesian economic thought. At the beginning of World War II, the number of democracies around the world was about the same as it had been forty years before.
In The Spirit of Democracy , Larry Diamond argues that by , "dictatorship, not democracy, was the way of the world", and that "Barely a quarter of independent states chose their governments through competitive, free, and fair elections. The gains of liberalism have been significant.
In , roughly 40 countries around the world were characterised as liberal democracies, but that number had increased to more than 80 as of A major liberal accomplishment includes the rise of liberal internationalism , which has been credited with the establishment of global organisations such as the League of Nations and, after World War II, the United Nations.
Liberalism is frequently cited as the dominant ideology of modern times. Liberal parties , think tanks , and other institutions are common in many nations, although they advocate for different causes based on their ideological orientation. Liberal parties can be centre-left , centrist , or centre-right depending on their location. Liberal International . They can further be divided based on their adherence to social liberalism or classical liberalism , although all liberal parties and individuals share basic similarities, including the support for civil rights and democratic institutions.
On a global level, liberals are united in the Liberal International , which contains over influential liberal parties and organisations from across the ideological spectrum. Some parties in the LI are among the most famous in the world, such as the Liberal Party of Canada , while others are among the smallest, such as the Gibraltar Liberal Party. Regionally, liberals are organised through various institutions depending on the prevailing geopolitical context.
The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party , for example, represents the interests of liberals in Europe while the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is the predominant liberal group in the European Parliament. In long-term historical perspective, Norman Davies has argued that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of Liberalism in Europe and its colonies, from about to the twentieth century. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment , reaching practically every country in Europe, as well as the British and Spanish overseas colonies.
It was especially attractive to royalty, powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists. Its great enemy was the Roman Catholic Church, so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Austria, Spain, and Mexico, much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between the conservatives centered around the Church and liberals who were often Freemasons. By the s, every regiment of the British Army had at least one Masonic chapter, and they set about to form chapters among civilians everywhere they were stationed in the British Empire.
In the Middle East and the Ottoman Empire the effect of liberalism was significant. During the 19th century, Arab, Ottoman, and Persian intellectuals visited Europe to study and learn about Western literature, science and liberal ideas. This led them to ask themselves about their countries' underdevelopment and concluded that they needed to promote constitutionalism, development, and liberal values to modernize their societies. Tahtawi studied ethics, social and political philosophy, and mathematics. In , Tahtawi returned home to be part of the statewide effort to modernize the Egyptian infrastructure and education in what became an Egyptian renaissance Nahda that flourished in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, later moving to Ottoman-ruled Arabic-speaking regions including Lebanon, Syria and others.
Three of his published volumes were works of political and moral philosophy. They introduced his Egyptian audience to the liberal ideas of the Enlightenment such as secular authority and political rights and liberty, his ideas regarding how a modern civilized society ought to be and what constituted by extension a civilized or "good Egyptian", and his ideas on public interest and public good.
In the Ottoman Empire, to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers, the Empire launched a series of reforms. This period is called Tanzimat reorganization.
Women, Privilege, and Power: British Politics, to the Present (The Making of Modern Freedom) [Amanda Vickery] on ydizycygys.tk *FREE* shipping on. Women, Privilege, and Power: British Politics, to the Present women achieved public standing and exercised political power in England from the middle of the eighteenth century to the present. The Making of Modern Freedom *.
However, the reformist ideas and trends of the Nahda and Tanzimat didn't reach the common population successfully, as the books, periodicals, and newspapers were accessible primarily to intellectuals and segments of an emerging middle class, while many Muslims saw them as foreign influences on the world of Islam. That perception complicated reformist efforts made by Middle Eastern states. In , a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals, who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire , established a secret society called the Young Ottomans.
They believed the reforms did not go far enough and wanted to end the autocracy in the empire. They "attempted to reconcile Islamic concepts of government with the ideas of Montesquieu, Danton, Rousseau, and contemporary European Scholars and statesmen. Namik Kemal , who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans, admired the constitution of the French Third Republic ; he summed up the Young Ottomans' political ideals as "the sovereignty of the nation, the separation of powers, the responsibility of officials, personal freedom, equality, freedom of thought, freedom of press, freedom of association, enjoyment of property, sanctity of the home".
Several decades later, another group of reform-minded Ottomans, the Young Turks , repeated the Young Ottomans' efforts, leading to the Young Turk Revolution in and the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era. The Nahda period sought to modernize Islam and society. Ali rated it it was amazing Jan 18, Lauriane rated it really liked it Jan 19, Julie rated it it was amazing May 31, Jessica marked it as to-read Dec 09, Paulina marked it as to-read Nov 10, Elaine marked it as to-read Dec 20, Matilda marked it as to-read Sep 15, Stephanie marked it as to-read Jan 06, Kirsten added it Jan 08, Katrien marked it as to-read Jan 28, Lauren Gilbert marked it as to-read Jul 14, Lucette marked it as to-read Apr 29, Diana marked it as to-read Aug 01, Steelwhisper marked it as to-read Aug 03, Q marked it as to-read Dec 03, Tina Littlebear marked it as to-read Jan 22, Steve Mclellan marked it as to-read Feb 17, Kelly marked it as to-read May 19, Suzanne marked it as to-read Jun 24, Daisy marked it as to-read Aug 15, Susan marked it as to-read Feb 11, Timelordik marked it as to-read Aug 11, Judy Snowball marked it as to-read Oct 03, Dawn marked it as to-read Jan 24, Rachel Jhinku marked it as to-read Feb 10, Steff marked it as to-read Mar 18, You can filter on reading intentions from the list , as well as view them within your profile.
Setting up reading intentions help you organise your course reading. It makes it easy to scan through your lists and keep track of progress. Here's an example of what they look like:. Your reading intentions are also stored in your profile for future reference. To set a reading intention, click through to any list item, and look for the panel on the left hand side:.