Jimmy Carter . In July , as the energy crisis continued, Carter met with a series of business, government, labor, academic, and religious leaders in an effort to overhaul his administration's policies. On July 15, Carter delivered a nationally televised speech in which he called for long-term limits on oil imports and the development of synthetic fuels.
But he also stated, "all the legislation in the world can't fix what's wrong with America. What is lacking is confidence and a sense of community. The initial reaction to Carter's speech was generally positive, but Carter erred by forcing out several cabinet members, including Secretary of Energy Schlesinger, later in July. The Energy Security Act established the Synthetic Fuels Corporation , which was charged with developing alternative energy sources.
Carter took office during a period of " stagflation ", as the economy experienced both high inflation and low economic growth. He appointed Alfred E. The energy crisis ended a period of growth; both inflation and interest rates rose, while economic growth, job creation, and consumer confidence declined sharply. William Miller, had already contributed to somewhat higher inflation,  rising from 5. The sudden doubling of crude oil prices by OPEC  forced inflation to double-digit levels, averaging During the presidential campaign, Carter proposed a health care reform plan that included key features of a bipartisan bill, sponsored by Senator Ted Kennedy, that provided for the establishment of a universal national health insurance NHI system.
The establishment of an NHI plan was the top priority of organized labor and many liberal Democrats, but Carter had concerns about cost, as well as the inflationary impact, of such a system. He delayed consideration of health care through , and ultimately decided that he would not support Kennedy's proposal to establish an NHI system that covered all Americans. Kennedy met repeatedly with Carter and White House staffers in an attempt to forge a compromise health care plan, but negotiations broke down in July Though Kennedy and Carter had previously been on good terms, differences over health insurance led to an open break between the two Democratic leaders.
In June , Carter proposed more limited health insurance reform—an employer mandate to provide private catastrophic health insurance. The plan would also extend Medicaid to the very poor without dependent minor children, and would add catastrophic coverage to Medicare. Long led a bipartisan conservative majority of the Senate Finance Committee to support an employer mandate to provide catastrophic coverage and the addition of catastrophic coverage to Medicare. Carter sought a comprehensive overhaul of welfare programs in order to provide more cost-effective aid.
Congress rejected almost all of his proposals. In early , Secretary Califano presented Carter with several options for welfare reform, all of which Carter rejected because they increased government spending. In August , Carter proposed a major jobs program for welfare recipients capable of working and a "decent income" to those who were incapable of working.
To the disappointment of the Congressional Black Caucus CBC and organized labor, the final act did not include a provision authorizing the federal government to act as an employer of last resort in order to provide for full employment. Carter also sought tax reform in order to create a simpler, more progressive taxation system. He proposed taxing capital gains as ordinary income, eliminating tax shelters, limiting itemized tax deductions, and increasing the standard deduction.
The act corrected a technical error made in and ensured the short-term solvency of Social Security. Carter supported many of the goals of the environmentalist movement, and appointed prominent environmentalists to high positions. As president his rhetoric strongly supported environmentalism, with a certain softness regarding his acceptance of nuclear energy — he been trained in nuclear energy with atomic submarines in the Navy.
By midterm, however, Carter's failure to work closely with the Democratic Congress meant it many initiatives were never past, to the great disappointment of his supporters. In an address to the nation of April 18, Carter opened by saying he had to talk about an unpleasant topic: apart from preventing a war, this is "the greatest challenge that our country will face during our lifetime. Real energy shortages could force a return to rationing, as happened in the Nixon administration. He gave lip service to protecting the environment. His main message was the need for conservation. His goal was to Limit the growth of energy demand to an increase of two percent a year, cut in half the oil imports, to create a new strategic petroleum reserve containing a six month supply, and to insulate more homes, and use more solar energy.
He boasted of adding 43 million acres to the National Park system, as well as 13 new wild and scenic rivers, and protection of 4. Many of his successful initiatives came in the last year in office, using executive actions, such as banning road building in 58 million acres of forest lands in 39 states, and restricting mining and grazing on public lands. There was no progress on greenhouse gases, however.
By , however, Carter's inability to work closely with the Democratic Congress meant most of his proposals were never passedt, to the great disappointment of his supporters. Carter's weakness was exhibited in his decision to eliminate funding for 19 water resource construction projects, despite strong objections from congressmen who favored the programs. Carter distrusted the programs, based on his own troubled gubernatorial experience with the Army Corps of Engineers, his campaign rhetoric and the rhetoric of his environmentalist supporters, compounded by his lack of experience with Congress.
He was forced to retreat, and lost much of his influence on Capitol Hill. Democrats in Congress were displeased with his moralistic, executive-oriented, rational approach to decision-making and his reluctance adjustment to go along with standard congressional methods of compromise, patronage, and log-rolling. Cecil Andrus who had been governor of Idaho, served as secretary of the interior He convinced Carter to withdraw million acres out of million acres of public domain land in Alaska from commercial use for designation as US national-interest conservation areas.
In December the president placed more 56 million acres of Alaska's Federal lands into the National Park system, protecting them from mineral or oil development The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act , doubled the amount of public land set aside for national parks and wildlife refuges.
Carter used his power under the Antiquities Act to set aside 57 million acres in 17 national monuments. Early into his term, Carter worked to fulfill a campaign promise to teachers' unions, Especially the National Education Association NEA create a cabinet-level Department of education. He said it would increase efficiency and equal opportunity, as well as enhance support for public schools. The unions hoped it would increase the flow of federal dollars to their schools. Opponents in both parties criticized it as an additional layer of bureaucracy that would reduce local control and local support of education.
The first secretary was Shirley Mount Hufstedler , a liberal judge from California.
Young advocated strong sanctions after the murder by South African police of Steve Biko in C-span might could help, or maybe a whole new book channel "Handling the Truth" on cable, rated R for real- X for exactly! Posted by: Avery S. Our clever leaders now grant us a "payday loan" on the nation's maxed-out credit card, to fuel a last gasp of spending - hoping the feces won't hit the fan before election day! I bring "Plan B 3.
The NEA endorsed and help fund his campaign, but only half its members voted for him. Carter opposed tax breaks for Protestant schools in the South, which he decided were fighting integration. This action mobilized the Religious Right against him in It called for tuition tax credits for parents to use for nonpublic school education. Carter believed the proposal was unconstitutional and too expensive. Carter took a stance in support of decriminalization of cannabis, citing the legislation passed in Oregon in Carter retained Nixon-era yet pro-decriminalization advisor Robert Du Pont , and appointed pro-decriminalization British physician Peter Bourne as his drug advisor or "drug czar" to head up his newly formed Office of Drug Abuse Policy.
The net result of the Carter administration was the continuation of the War on Drugs and restrictions on cannabis,   while at the same time cannabis consumption in the United States reached historically high levels. Carter was the first president to address the topic of gay rights, and his administration was the first to meet with a group of gay rights activists. The Supreme Court's holding, delivered in , upheld the constitutionality of affirmative action but prohibited the use of racial quotas in college admissions.
Carter presided over the deregulation of several industries, which proponents hoped would help revive the sluggish economy. The Airline Deregulation Act abolished the Civil Aeronautics Board and granted airlines greater control over their operations. Carter also signed the Motor Carrier Act of , which deregulated the trucking industry, and the Staggers Rail Act , which loosened regulations on railroads. The Housing and Community Development Act of set up Urban Development Action Grants, extended handicapped and elderly provisions, and established the Community Reinvestment Act ,  which sought to prevent banks from denying credit and loans to poor communities.
Carter initially wanted to nominate George Ball to become Secretary of State , but he was vetoed by Brzezinski. Vance was a strong advocate of disarmament. Vance also pushed for detente with the Soviet Union , and clashed frequently with the hawkish Brzezinski. Vance tried to advance arms limitations by working on the SALT II agreement with the Soviet Union, which he saw as the central diplomatic issue of the time, but Brzezinski lobbied for a tougher more assertive policy vis-a-vis the Soviets.
He argued for strong condemnation of Soviet activity in Africa and in the Third World as well as successfully lobbying for normalized relations with the People's Republic of China in As Brzezinski took control of the negotiations with Beijing, Vance was marginalized and his influence began to wane. When revolution erupted in Iran in late , the two were divided on how to support the United States' ally the Shah of Iran.
Vance argued in favor of reforms while Brzezinski urged him to crack down — the 'iron fist' approach. Unable to receive a direct course of action from Carter, the mixed messages that the shah received from Vance and Brzezinski contributed to his confusion and indecision as he fled Iran in January and his regime collapsed. Relations deteriorated on many points in the Nixon years , including trade disputes, defense agreements, energy, fishing, the environment, cultural imperialism, and foreign policy.
The late s saw a more sympathetic American attitude toward Canadian political and economic needs, the pardoning of draft evaders who had moved to Canada, and the passing of old matters such as Watergate and the Vietnam War. Canada more than ever welcomed American investments during "the stagflation" that hurt both nations.
Carter, a graduate of the Naval Academy, had been trained on nuclear submarines. He took a close interest in defense policy, especially new technologies, after naming nuclear physicist Harold Brown as Secretary of Defense. He sought a sturdier defense posture by stationing medium range nuclear missiles in Europe aimed at the Soviet Union.
The SS replaced aging Soviet systems of the SS-4 Sandal and SS-5 Skean , which were seen to pose a limited threat to Western Europe due to their poor accuracy, limited payload one warhead , lengthy preparation time, difficulty in being concealed, and immobility thus exposing them to pre-emptive NATO strikes ahead of a planned attack. Washington initially considered its strategic nuclear weapons and nuclear-capable aircraft to be adequate counters to the SS and a sufficient deterrent against Soviet aggression.
The ministers also attributed the altered situation to the deployment of the Soviet Tupolev TuM strategic bomber , which they believed to display "much greater performance" than its predecessors. To address these developments, the ministers adopted two policy "tracks". One thousand theater nuclear warheads, out of 7, such warheads, would be removed from Europe and the US would pursue bilateral negotiations with the Soviet Union intended to limit theater nuclear forces.
Carter took office during the Cold War , a sustained period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. During the late s and early s, relations between the two superpowers had improved through a policy known as detente. In a reflection of the waning importance of the Cold War, some of Carter's contemporaries labeled him as the first post-Cold War president, but relations with the Soviet Union would continue to be an important factor in American foreign policy in the late s and the s.
Many of the leading officials in the Carter administration, including Carter himself, were members of the Trilateral Commission, which de-emphasized the Cold War. The Trilateral Commission instead advocated a foreign policy focused on aid to Third World countries and improved relations with Western Europe and Japan. The central tension of the Carter administration's foreign policy was reflected in the division between Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who sought improved relations with the Soviet Union and the Third World, and National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski, who favored confrontation with the Soviet Union on a range of issues.
Carter believed that previous administrations had erred in allowing the Cold War concerns and Realpolitik to dominate foreign policy. His administration placed a new emphasis on human rights , democratic values , nuclear proliferation , and global poverty. Carter nominated civil rights activist Patricia M. Carter also cut back or terminated military aid to Augusto Pinochet of Chile , Ernesto Geisel of Brazil, and Jorge Rafael Videla of Argentina, all of whom he criticized for human rights violations. Carter's ambassador to the United Nations , Andrew Young , was the first African-American to hold a high-level diplomatic post.
Along with Carter, he sought to change U. Carter won the repeal of the Byrd Amendment , which had undercut international sanctions on the Rhodesian government of Ian Smith. He also pressured Smith to hold elections, leading to the Rhodesia elections and the eventual creation of Zimbabwe. These policy disputes reached their most contentious point during the fall of Pol Pot 's genocidal regime of Democratic Kampuchea following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia , when Brzezinski prevailed in having the administration refuse to recognize the new Cambodian government due to its support by the Soviet Union.
Carter hoped to extend these talks by reaching an agreement to reduce, rather than merely set upper limits on, the nuclear arsenals of both countries. Afghanistan had been non-aligned during the early stages of the Cold War, but a coup had brought a pro-Western government into power. Carter was surprised by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, as the consensus of the U. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan brought a significant change in Carter's foreign policy and ended the period of detente that had begun in the mids. Returning to a policy of containment , the United States reconciled with Cold War allies and increased the defense budget, leading to a new arms race with the Soviet Union.
The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in , precipitating the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself. To punish Moscow, Carter imposed an embargo on shipping American wheat. This hurt American farmers more than it did the Soviet economy, and Reagan resumed sales. Other nations sold their own grain to the USSR, and the Soviets had ample reserve stocks and a good harvest of their own.
On taking office, Carter decided to use his influence to mediate the long-running Arab—Israeli conflict. Sadat's visit drew the condemnation of other Arab League countries, but Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin each expressed an openness to bilateral talks. Begin sought security guarantees; Sadat sought the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula and home rule for the West Bank and Gaza , Israeli-occupied territories that were largely populated by Palestinian Arabs. Seeking to further negotiations, Carter invited Begin and Sadat to the presidential retreat of Camp David in September Because direct negotiations between Sadat and Begin proved unproductive, Carter began meeting with the two leaders individually.
Israel had begun constructing settlements in the West Bank, which emerged as an important barrier to a peace agreement. Unable to come to definitive settlement over an Israeli withdrawal, the two sides reached an agreement in which Israel made vague promises to allow the creation of an elected government in the West Bank and Gaza. In return, Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel's right to exist. The Camp David Accords were the subject of intense domestic opposition in both Egypt and Israel, as well as the wider Arab World , but each side agreed to negotiate a peace treaty on the basis of the accords.
Aaron David Miller interviewed many officials for his book The Much Too Promised Land and concluded the following: "No matter whom I spoke to — Americans, Egyptians, or Israelis — most everyone said the same thing: no Carter, no peace treaty. During the years after the coup, the U. That same year, rioting broke out in several cities, and it soon spread across the country. Poor economic conditions, the unpopularity of Pahlavi's " White Revolution ", and an Islamic revival all led to increasing anger among Iranians, many of whom also despised the United States for its support of Pahlavi and its role in the coup.
Washington's new demands for human rights angered the Shah, and split the Carter administration. Vance and the State Department made it a high priority, while Brzezinski warned that it would undermine the strength of America's most important ally in the region. Carter did allow the sale of riot control equipment to suppress increasingly vocal and violent protests, especially from the religious element. By , the Iranian Revolution had broken out against the Shah's rule. The mixed messages that the Shah received from Vance and Brzezinski contributed to his confusion and indecision.
The Shah went into exile, leaving a caretaker government in control. A popular religious figure, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , returned from exile in February to popular acclaim. As the unrest continued, Carter allowed Pahlavi into the United States for medical treatment.
The crisis quickly became the subject of international and domestic attention, and Carter vowed to secure the release of the hostages. He refused the Iranian demand of the return of Pahlavi in exchange for the release of the hostages. His approval ratings rose as Americans rallied around his response, but the crisis became increasingly problematic for his administration as it continued.
The operation was a total disaster, and it ended in the death of eight American soldiers. The failure of the operation strengthened Ayatollah Khomenei's position in Iran and badly damaged Carter's domestic standing. Iran waited to release the captives until hours after Carter left office on January 20, Since the s, Panama had called for turning over to it the Panama Canal. Carter made it a priority, hoping to launch his foreign policy with a dramatic success.
Another postponement might precipitate violent upheaval in Panama, in which the canal could be damaged or blocked. Furthermore, a settlement would win approval across Latin America as a gracious apology for American wrongdoing. It would implement Carter's call for a moral cleaning of American foreign policy. Carter's initiative faced intense opposition from conservatives, led by Reagan, who charged that Carter was giving away for free a crucial and costly American asset.
This enabled the opposition to plan strategy and coordinate tactics while dividing tasks, sharing new information and pooling resources. In contrast, the supporters were not coordinated. During its ratification debate, the Senate added amendments that granted the U. The Canal Zone and all its facilities were turned over to Panama on 31 December , and Reagan repeatedly attacked Carter on this issue in the presidential campaign. Carter hoped to improve relations with Cuba upon taking office, but any thaw in relations was prevented by ongoing Cold War disputes in Central America and Africa.
In early , Cuban leader Fidel Castro announced that anyone who wished to leave Cuba would be allowed to do so through the port of Mariel. After Carter announced that the United States would provide "open arms for the tens of thousands of refugees seeking freedom from Communist domination", Cuban Americans arranged the Mariel boatlift.
The Refugee Act , signed earlier in the year, had provided for annual cap of 19, Cuban immigrants to the United States per year, and required that those refugees go through a review process. By September, , Cubans had arrived in the United States, and many faced a lack of inadequate food and housing.
Carter was widely criticized for his handling of the boatlift, especially in the electorally important state of Florida. The two countries increasingly collaborated against the Soviet Union, and the Carter administration tacitly consented to the Chinese invasion of Vietnam.
In , Carter extended formal diplomatic recognition to the PRC for the first time. This decision led to a boom in trade between the United States and the PRC, which was pursuing economic reforms under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping. Carter's abrogation of the treaty was challenged in court by conservative Republicans, but the Supreme Court ruled that the issue was a non-justiciable political question in Goldwater v. The U. One of Carter's first acts was to order the withdrawal of troops from South Korea, which had hosted a large number of U. Carter believed that the soldiers could be put to better use in Western Europe, but opponents of the withdrawal feared that North Korea would invade South Korea in the aftermath of the withdrawal.
South Korea and Japan both protested the move, as did many members of Congress, the military, and the State Department. After a strong backlash, Carter delayed the withdrawal, and ultimately only a fraction of the U. Carter's attempt to remove U. Until , Washington ignored southern Africa because the Cold War was not in play there. Weak insurgencies existed in Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia, and Namibia, but did not appear to threaten white rule after the colonial powers left.
The collapse of the last colonial power, Portuguese, in April meant the end of white rule in Angola and Mozambique. Cuba, with Soviet help, sent a large military force. It took control of Angola in The region now became a Cold War battleground. Vance and Brzezinski battled over policy but the U. Instead Cuba and the Soviet Union strongly supported the Namibian insurgents and 20, Cuban soldiers were poised in neighboring Angola.
Thy Carter team failed to find a solution,  . Young opened up friendly relationships with key leaders, especially in Nigeria. A highly controversial issue was independence of Namibia from Union of South Africa. Young began United Nations discussions which went nowhere. Only after the Cold War ended in did Namibia become independent. Young advocated strong sanctions after the murder by South African police of Steve Biko in Carter refused and only imposed a limited arms embargo and South Africa ignored the protests.
The Soviets, who traditionally backed Somalia, now switched to support of the Marxist regime in Ethiopia. The United States remained neutral because Somalia was clearly the aggressor nation, and in with the assistance of 20, Cuban troops, Ethiopia defeated Somalia. The most important American success was helping the transition from white-dominated Southern Rhodesia to black rule in Zimbabwe.
Historians are generally agreed that the Presidency of Jimmy Carter was not very successful when it came to Africa. However, there are multiple explanations available. Revisionists said that did not matter nearly as much as the intense rivalry between dovish Secretary of State Cyrus Vance and hawkish National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski. Vance lost nearly all the battles, and finally resigned in disgust. Carter made 12 international trips to 25 nations during his presidency.
OMB Director Bert Lance resigned his position on September 21, , amid allegations of improper banking activities prior to his becoming director. Curran as a special counsel to investigate loans made to the peanut business owned by Carter by a bank controlled by Bert Lance. Unlike Archibald Cox and Leon Jaworski who were named as special prosecutors to investigate the Watergate scandal , Curran's position as special counsel meant that he would not be able to file charges on his own, but would require the approval of Assistant Attorney General Philip Heymann. Carter's brother Billy generated a great deal of notoriety during Carter's presidency for his colorful and often outlandish public behavior.
In April , polling showed that Carter's approval rating had declined precipitously, and a Gallup survey found Carter trailing Ted Kennedy for the Democratic nomination. After the final primaries, Carter met with Kennedy in the White House. Partly because Carter refused to accept a party platform calling for the establishment of a national health insurance program, Kennedy refused to concede. He instead called for an " open convention ", in which delegates would be free to vote for the candidate of their choice regardless of the result in the primaries. The Republican presidential primaries quickly developed into a two-man contest between former Governor Ronald Reagan of California and former Congressman George H.
Bush of Texas. Bush, who referred to Reagan's tax cut proposal as "voodoo economics", won the Iowa Caucus but faded later in the race. Reagan won the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the Republican National Convention and named Bush as his running mate. Anderson , who had previously sought the Republican presidential nomination, launched an independent campaign for president. A key strength for Reagan was his appeal to the rising conservative movement, as epitomized by activists like Paul Weyrich , Richard Viguerie , and Phyllis Schlafly.
Though they espoused cutting taxes and budget deficits, many conservatives focused on social issues like abortion and homosexuality. Wade and the withdrawal of Bob Jones University 's tax-exempt status, convinced many evangelical Protestants to become engaged in politics for the first time. Evangelical Protestants became an increasingly important voting bloc, and they generally supported Reagan in the campaign. Polling remained close throughout September and October, but Reagan's performance in the October 28 debate and Carter's failure to win the release of the Iranian hostages gave Reagan the momentum entering election day.
Voter turnout reached its lowest point since the presidential election , a reflection of the negative attitudes many people held towards all three major candidates. Polls of historians and political scientists have generally ranked Carter as a below-average president. Jimmy Carter is much more highly regarded today than when he lost his bid for reelection in He has produced an exemplary post-presidency, and today there is an increased appreciation for the enormity of the task he took on in , if not for the measures he took to deal with the crises that he faced.
Carter took office just thirty months after a President had left the entire federal government in a shambles. He faced epic challenges—the energy crisis, Soviet aggression, Iran, and above all, a deep mistrust of leadership by his citizens. He was hard working and conscientious. But he often seemed like a player out of position, a man more suited to be secretary of energy than president.
Carter became President by narrowly defeating an uninspiring, unelected chief executive heir to the worst presidential scandal in history. The nomination was his largely because in the decade before , Democratic leadership in the nation had been decimated by scandal, Vietnam, and an assassination. It was Carter's fate to attempt to navigate the nation between the rock of traditional Democratic constituencies and the hard place of an emerging conservative movement whose emphasis was more on social and cultural values than on the economic concerns of the Democratic Party.
It was also Carter's misfortune that he led the nation at a time of staggering inflation and growing unemployment, compounded by an oil shock over which he had little control At the same time, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that Carter's was a mediocre presidency and that this was largely his own doing. He was smart rather than shrewd. He was not a careful political planner.
He suffered from strategic myopia. He was long on good intentions but short on know-how. He had lofty ideals, such as in the area of human rights, which had symbolic and long-lasting importance, but they often blinded him to political realities. He was self-righteous. He was an administrator who micro-managed, but not well. Most important, he was a president who never adequately defined a mission for his government, a purpose for the country, and a way to get there. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the presidency of Jimmy Carter.
This article is part of a series about. Presidential campaigns. Main article: United States presidential election, Main article: Inauguration of Jimmy Carter. See also: energy crisis. I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American democracy I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with unmatched economic power and military might. The threat is nearly invisible in ordinary ways. It is a crisis of confidence. It is a crisis that strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of our national will.
We can see this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation See also: History of health care reform in the United States. See also: Cannabis policy of the Jimmy Carter administration. Further information: intermediate-range ballistic missile ]. See also: Torrijos—Carter Treaties. Statement on the Panama Canal Treaty Signing. Jimmy Carter's speech upon signing the Panama Canal treaty, September 7, See also: Sino-American relations.
SWAPO allies. South African allies. South West Africa Namibia. South Africa. Carter was the first president since Harry S. Truman to have his veto overridden by a Congress controlled by the same party. NBC News. Retrieved December 31, The American Presidency. Mariner Books. Guide to the White House Staff. Retrieved May 16, February 8, Retrieved March 13, Walker and Deborah J. McMillion" PDF. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved May 11, Carter: the battle for the Democratic party's soul UP of Kansas, Jimmy Carter. The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, Retrieved November 21, Miller Center.
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Humphrey, Senator Henry M. Jackson and Representative Morris K.
All three are co-sponsors of the Kennedy-Corman bill. Auerbach, Stuart April 17, The outlines of Carter's program are close to one sponsored by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy D-Mass. UPI April 17, Chicago Tribune. Although Carter didn't provide an estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features many proposals similar to plans suggested by others, including Sen.
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Archived from the original PDF on March 4, Retrieved September 11, Coll, Steve Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism.
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The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Archived from the original on December 22, June 27, Retrieved February 20, David Luhrssen and Glen Jeansonne. Elvis and the Memphis Mafia. The New Yorker. Erin Overbey. The Axioms of Religion. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press. Revised edition. Conversations with Carter. Lynne Rienner Publishers. October 21, Retrieved on: March 31, Hershey Jr September 26, Retrieved July 27, Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins. Retrieved March 31, She got life imprisonment instead A reexamination of the evidence and trial proceedings by the original judge revealed that she was completely innocent, and she was granted a pardon.
Retrieved May 2, Rosalynn Carter, who believed Prince was wrongly convicted, secured a reprieve so Prince could join them in Washington. Prince was later granted a full pardon; to this day she occasionally babysits the Carters' grandkids. Retrieved May 3, Retrieved August 12, Retrieved December 21, Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 20, President Jimmy Carter" Press release.
Carter Center. December 6, Retrieved January 20, The Detroit News. Retrieved March 22, Retrieved February 11, December 27, The Independent. January 22, Retrieved January 28, Archived from the original on January 19, May 18, January 7, January 21, Diplomatic History. October 11, Archived from the original on November 21, Leeds, Jeff; Manly, Lorne February 12, Karanth, Sanjana. Archived from the original on July 7, Further information: Jimmy Carter bibliography. Allen, Gary Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter. Annual register of the United States Naval Academy.
June 6, Berggren, D. Jason; Rae, Nicol C. Presidential Studies Quarterly. Bourne, Peter G. New York: Scribner. Busch, Andrew E. University Press of Kansas. Clymer, Kenton Dumbrell, John The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation 2nd ed. Fink, Gary M. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Flint, Andrew R. Freedman, Robert The Historical Journal. Gillon, Steven M. The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy. New York: Columbia University Press. Glad, Betty New York: W. Godbold, E. Stanly Jr. Oxford University Press. Hahn, Dan F. In Windt, Theodore; Ingold, Beth eds. Essays in Presidential Rhetoric 3rd ed. Hargrove, Erwin C. Harris, David Little, Brown. Jones, Charles O. Jorden, William J. Panama Odyssey. Austin: University of Texas Press. Kaufman, Burton I. The Presidency of James Earl Carter 2nd ed. Keys, Barbara J. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Kucharsky, David Mattson, Kevin Morgan, Iwan Morris, Kenneth Earl Jimmy Carter, American Moralist. University of Georgia Press. Reichard, Gary W. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert ed. New York: Greenwood Press. Ribuffo, Leo P. In John Patrick Diggins ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Rosenbaum, Herbert D. Westport, Conn. Schram, Martin Running for President, The Carter Campaign. New York: Stein and Day.
Schmitz, David F. Strong, Robert A. Fall January 1, Section 1, Page 18, Column 1. Vogel, Steve May 4, Washington Post — via ArlingtonNationalCemetery. White, Theodore H. Witcover, Jules Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, — New York: Viking Press. Zelizer, Julian Jimmy Carter at Wikipedia's sister projects. Georgia gubernatorial elections Democratic presidential primaries Democratic National Convention Presidential election Mary Prince nanny.
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