mmamensshirts.com/images/18/108.html The ordinariness of racial mixing and mixedness in British society. The case of Slovenian Istria. Voices of white mothers with mixedrace children in St Anns Nottingham. The example of German French and British largescale survey datasets. Notes on mixedrace methodologies. Approaches to racial and ethnic mixedness and mixing.
Rosalind Edwards. Homology may be loosely described as compositional and structural correspondence.
By compositional correspondence we mean a qualitative resemblance in terms of … constituents; by structural correspondence we refer to similarity in terms of spatial or temporal arrangement of parts …. For example, in classical morphology, the basic and mutually distinct features of a plant are root, stem and leaf Sattler, Roots draw up water and nutrients from the soil; a stem is a part of the vascular system of the plant, bearing shoots and leaves; leaves are photosynthetic organs.
It is through these distinct qualities and their clear-cut functions that we can identify a plant. But this is not always so.
Crucially, as Sattler suggests, the assumed continuum does not have to be linear in its organisation. A recurring theme in fuzzy morphology is the need to hold process and quality together so that intermediary or compound qualities and states can be acknowledged alongside categorical distinctions. In the following discussions, contributors take up some of the questions, conundrums and queering that arise in the implicit homologous relations that ideas and discussions of hybridity and mixedness can assume.
And might the temporality of structural correspondence be reversible, so that hybridisations can peel back on themselves with prior distinctions re-emerging with changing circumstances, such as when dementia rearranges migrant sensibilities Gunaratnam, this issue? In investigating the manifestation and extents of various border crossings and alliances, all of the essays make explicit the demands that hybridity and mixing make upon analytic frameworks, politics and daily life.
The articles will be of particular relevance to those who are interested in the hybridisation of disciplinary approaches to subjectivity. Underpinning the various contributions, authors are engaging with a series of common and interrelated questions: What counts as hybridity for the subject? Do our analytic categories, methods and ontologies lock hybridising phenomena and processes into a false problematic? What analytic, methodological and political challenges does receptivity to mixture and the breaching of boundaries suggest?
How is a marked hybridity lived? The innovation of the contributions that follow are achieved in three main ways. First, by discussing the subjects and phenomena that signify hybridity and considering them with regard to specific forms, processes, extents and effects.
Gunaratnam points to the risk of flattening out complexity and minimizing intra-group difference in research, as this has the potential to reproduce wider forms of essentialism, stereotyping and racism. By Tony Sandset. This repository has been built using EPrints software , developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use. It understands entities not as perfectly knowable cause-effect sequences, but as bundles of virtual capacities. Methods, Knowledge and Power. Contributors consider of the ways that researchers both create and reinforce particular versions of mixedness in and through different national large scale datasets, and also the intersection of identity boundaries and hidden power relations in in-depth interviews with individuals. However, the emotion maps of Prakash and Anuradha reveal a quite different picture of couple experience.
Second, through a hybridising of disciplinary perspectives see also Pieterse, , including work from psychoanalysis, philosophy, cultural studies, geography, sociology and social policy. And third, by bringing together authors working with novel materials — archives, neurology, narrative and autobiography — and in different sites. If hybridity forewarns us that we need to think more carefully about the ontology, politics and circumstances of subjectivity, it does so from a semantic field that is itself pluralised and wandering, with a to-ing and fro-ing between material and cultural definitions, and attempts to transport terms from one domain to the other Yao, Discussions weave between the empirical, theoretical, technological and experiential and are spoken through the languages of the natural, social and human sciences, autobiography, fiction, literary criticism, art, activism and social policy.
Creole as a designation has repeatedly been through the discursive washing machine. It was bleached by those for whom the dividend of whiteness was significant …. The shifting semiotic and geosocial freight of vocabulary is especially relevant in making sense of the contemporary suspicion and antipathy towards the use of the term hybridity in the social and human sciences. At its root hybrida has genetic meaning Easthope, , signifying the offspring of a tame sow and wild boar that as a result of crossbreeding have enhanced traits, known as heterosis or hybrid vigour.
In the more recent past, hybridity has been used to denote human intervention in the life of plants. Although the nature of the conceptual distinctions between hybridity and mixedness are somewhat vague, for some theorists, especially in the social sciences, the distinction is political: the racist biologism of hybridity remains irreconcilable with its re-appropriation as a critique of monologic nations, cultures and language. This divesting of race of anything reminiscent of biological or material underpinnings reflects a prevailing social science response to the damaging history of raciology and racism see Gilroy, In order to subvert the violations and essentialisms of race thinking, race has been treated as a wholly symbolic venue, a venue at which biology is not welcome.
Framed within analyses of histories and enduring practices of racialisation, the supranormality of hybrid vigour has been seen as supplemented by the pathologisation, exoticisation and the commodifying of inter-ethnic mixing, yielding a multiplicity of subject positions and identifications. The metaphors of spies, tricksters, flies-on-the-wall and ambassadors in use among Canadian politicians, journalists and social scientists convey some of the discursive registers used to signify mixed-race subjects in contemporary circulation Mahtani, Because of the biological etymology of hybridity and its nineteenth-century manifestations in scientific racism, and also with respect to vernacular self-identifications Tizard and Phoenix, , mixedness and mixing have been the preferred terms of address and of empirical investigation see Edwards et al, a , b.
Mixed-race studies are now a recognised multi-disciplinary field, where, in addition to theoretical discussions, empirical research has included the interrogation of census categories and questions Aspinall, ; ethnographic research Ali, and the qualitative investigation of identifications among mixed-race young people Tizard and Phoenix, ; Song and Aspinall, ; and autobiographical explorations of faith mixing Lester Murad, In these discussions, the challenging assumptions about purity have led to a sturdy analysis and critique of the discursive playing out of colonial legacies, where the ambivalence and ambiguity of hybridity have been theorised as interrupting racial hierarchies.
I try to talk about hybridity through a psychoanalytic analogy, so that identification is a process of identifying with and through another object, an object of otherness, at which point the agency of identification — the subject — is itself always ambivalent, because of the intervention of that otherness. But the importance of hybridity is that it bears the traces of those feelings and practices which inform it, just like a translation, so that hybridity puts together the traces of certain other meanings or discourses. It does not give them the authority of being prior in the sense of being original: they are prior only in the sense of being anterior.
The process of cultural hybridity gives rise to something different, something new and unrecognisable, a new area of negotiation of meaning and representation. They describe the relation of subjective becoming and meaning making as a complex and precarious business, accomplished over time and within particular constraints.
The attention that the issue gives to both hybridity and mixedness with regard to longstanding debates in the natural and social sciences is deliberate. Some of the contributors want to capture the substance of encountering and intermixture that hybridity as a biological and botanic formulation first signalled. And some are interested in the contemporary, affective and socio-cultural living-out of all manner of mixing and melding within the flows of multicultural and transnational living.
In investigating various practices, forms and degrees of cultural, affective, bodily and spatio-temporal mixing, contributors try hard to avoid another round of pitting socio-cultural and biological accounts of human variation against each other.
In botanical nomenclature, to be hybrid is to be crossed. Hybridity is indicated by the use of the multiplication sign X between the names of the parents. The hybrid has no Proper Name or formal identity.
It is a multiplication, not an addition — a process of outcrossing by which diversity is increased, difference maximised and the past recycled in differential recombinations. These events of conservation, decolonisation and recombination are appropriate to this age of inter-species communication, molecular drive and morphic resonance. Earth and life evolve together as a sequence of simultaneous events in which populations remelt, recrystalise and hybridise.
Machinism asks how incredibly diverse processes such as agriculture and sexuality, religion and property law interlock, like cogs and wheels instead of signifiers and signifieds …. It understands entities not as perfectly knowable cause-effect sequences, but as bundles of virtual capacities. Approaching phenotype machinically means being prepared for the unpreparable: phenotype connects in infinite ways.
Whether through the whirring machinery of genealogy and inheritance Ahmed, Hollway and Elliott , the biocultural Aargon and Gunaratnam or the aesthetic-affective and its generous openness to the other Venn , the authors all push at and question the extents of the relationality at stake in hybridisation. There are two central interests that characterise the taking up of such provocations. Here we are in the realm of a vital relationality, a realm with implications for varied conversations about affective capacities Massumi, , the opening up of matter to emergence Grosz, and the dynamism of substance as a displacement of a metaphysics of essence Barad, and presence Harman, Despite the diversity of approaches and fields of interest, some of which have not directly engaged with social hierarchies, particularly of race, these literatures provoke some common questions for hybridity: What opens up and what might be effaced when we think of mixing without recourse to a beginning and an end?
How might we understand the continuing pertinence of the distinctions drawn between purity and mixture? What temporalities are involved in ideas about the closures and openness to mixing of subjects, things, activities and forces? Second, we are interested in the biopolitical and affective economies of flow, staying put, meeting-up and alliance and what these might tell us about identification, subjection and sociality. Our underlying interest in these debates and conundrums is to illuminate, via the contaminations and breaches of hybridity, what is at stake in the investments in the pure and the unmixed.
For Aragon, both categorisations trouble commonly held assumptions that the US regime of racial classification functioned primarily upon the principle of racial purity. If racial boundaries were not indeed porous and permeable, the regulation of racial mixing would be unnecessary. In order to understand the varied discursive and legal meanings and status assigned to Mexican and African-American mixedness, Aragon suggests, we need to consider two interrelated geosocialities: the located social circumstances produced by conquest and immigration, and those produced by slavery.
In other words, subjectivity contains both anterior and interior excesses, a ghostly surplus in subject formation. A psycho-social concern with racialised mixing also underpins the article by Wendy Hollway and Heather Elliott that uses data derived from a project on the identity transitions involved when women become mothers for the first time. The study was carried out in Tower Hamlets in the East End of London, an area that has come to epitomise the fast-flowing polyglot cultures celebrated in discussions of globalisation and multicultural conviviality.
The salience of affect and materiality within these processes cannot be preknown they contend, but must be understood in relation to the exchanges between biographical relationships, the contemporary discomfort of racial terminology and how identifications are made through the quality of what subjects do.
People from a 'mixed' or 'inter' racial and ethnic background, and people partnering and parenting across different racial and ethnic backgrounds, are of. International Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Mixedness and Mixing ( Relationships and Resources) [Rosalind Edwards, Suki Ali, Chamion Caballero, Miri.
Instead, they theorise mixing as being characterised by a relentless succession of emergent encounters between desire, discomfort and their limits — that can at times reiterate racial thinking. The question of whether undecided excess — an in-betweenness flowing between the sensible and insensible — might be a way of generating new insights and anti-hegemonic subject positions is a theme taken up in Morbid Mixtures by Yasmin Gunaratnam. Through three case examples that show progressively the interrelations and liminalities between the bio and the social, we are invited to consider the uneven coextensiveness of biopathology with social events and how subjective experience can be affected and rearranged in the process.
Rather than thinking of such modes of coimplication as necessarily democratic, a more complex relationality is suggested, wherein subjective experience can be constituted by both degrees and kinds of correspondence, with some potential for concatenations to unravel. There are always cultural antecedents to disability, disease and death, Gunaratnam acknowledges, but physical pain, tumours, changed biochemistry and drug regimens can all intervene in and reassemble subjectivity, queering linear temporality and the somatic. Gunaratnam argues that we cannot avoid the materiality of the body in our considerations of racial admixture and how the bio-social can write social histories of race and gendered violation with in and on the body, even when it is fading and depleted.
Ahmed turns her attention to two predominant mixed-race imaginaries. In the first version, a mixed-race child inherits both lines of her genealogy and brings them together. The essays in this issue are diverse in their approaches and topics. They articulate important discursive, phenomenological and political challenges for living with, thinking through and investigating admixture. In the process we can subsume or collapse different modalities of mixing. It can reduce the opportunities to think about the uneven play of intra-actions across forms and states of hybridisation and how these in turn acquire various powers of signification through the different features of the networks they inhabit and the methods that are used to produce knowledge about them.
However, as Stengers has argued, we must also recognise how certain phenomena can be indifferent to the interventions of the people and tools that are used to study them. In considering the breadth of the papers in this collection, it is important to reiterate that all of the articles question and intervene in the politics of identity thinking that surrounds the people and phenomena that come to be regarded as being mixed.
In approaching entanglement in this way, we hope to open up new ways of thinking and also investigating miscegenous alliances and their histories. Underlying each essay is an implicit question: What if the border crossings and liminality of hybridity might provide novel resources and lines of flight from the violence of social hierarchies?
Affectivity, in this account, has its roots in organic processes but its flowers take the form of particular qualities that pervade the imagery of conscious experience, tingeing it with the intensity of value. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Rethinking hybridity: Interrogating mixedness. Guest Editorial First Online: 17 March Derrida, , p. In this special issue, we take up these provocations and paradoxes of hybridity, and its vernacular counterpart mixedness, to examine the play of boundary making, testing and breaching for the subject as she makes and takes shape in her relations with others and changing biocultural arrangements and flows.
In thinking with both the phenomenon and process of hybridisation each contributor engages, in one way or another, with taxonomies and the disruptions that mixture signals. And so they all come up against matters of correspondence or what has been called homology. Homology is a botanic concept that is used in the field of plant morphology, which is concerned with the form and evolution of plants. As Emma Uprichard points out, quoting Sneath and Sokal , homology, a pre-Darwinian idea, is the basis of all taxonomies: Homology may be loosely described as compositional and structural correspondence.
As Erasmus has pointed out in a historical investigation of creole, its cultural formation has been differentiated by varying heritages and contexts of use. The term has been deployed to connote vernacular linguistic fusions, colonial populations and relationships to the metropole. The hybridity that Bhabha proposed, over two decades ago, is discursive and liminal, entrenched in the discursive trouble between the I and the You.
In an interview with Jonathan Rutherford , Bhabha explains: I try to talk about hybridity through a psychoanalytic analogy, so that identification is a process of identifying with and through another object, an object of otherness, at which point the agency of identification — the subject — is itself always ambivalent, because of the intervention of that otherness.
The work of the Maori curator George Hubbard and the biogeographer Robin Craw Craw and Hubbard, points to some of the creative incitements that can flow from thinking about the material and cultural entanglements of hybridity together and across disciplinary boundaries. Hubbard and Craw displace a Darwinian investment in certain privileged originary centres from which hybridity becomes mobility out from an origin. In this reading, hybridity as a generative force can emerge from staying in place amidst surrounding commotion and upheaval.
Rather than covering over the agronomic referents in hybridity as biologically determining, Craw and Hubbard envisage other possibilities In botanical nomenclature, to be hybrid is to be crossed. The recognition that assemblages between biology, geology, culture and embodiment can dissipate rather than consolidate essentialism brings to mind more recent work on the relational materialities of gender and race. Saldanha suggests that unlocking the hard categorising of racial thinking entails a pluralist ontology that works between the social and other diverse forces, including biology.
Applying his approach to the understanding of phenotype, Saldanha contends that: Machinism asks how incredibly diverse processes such as agriculture and sexuality, religion and property law interlock, like cogs and wheels instead of signifiers and signifieds …. The botanic terrain of unfolding process combinations in homology in the study of plant evolution has another resonance with regard to affect. They write: Affectivity, in this account, has its roots in organic processes but its flowers take the form of particular qualities that pervade the imagery of conscious experience, tingeing it with the intensity of value.
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